Category Archives: Informational

A Brief History Of Video

History of VideoBefore the invention of photography, the only way for people to capture sceneries was to either remember it or paint the image on a canvas. Photography was extremely revolutionary for its time. But then, technology wouldn’t have advanced if people didn’t want more. They only had still images. Wouldn’t it be nice if these images moved like real life? Enter the concept and realisation of video technology.

So much has happened before technology evolved to what it is today, with companies such as previously referring to films as ‘motion pictures.’

The Concept of ‘Moving Pictures’

Pictures that moved were once considered the stuff of sorcery and the supernatural. But the deepest underlying concept of video is made possible by simple science.

An optical phenomenon, called the persistence of vision, refers to the brain’s tendency to retain images from the retina for under a second more, before they go out of sight. This is complemented by another concept, the phi phenomenon, where images flashed in rapid succession create an illusion of movement. A two-dimensional animator’s flip book is the perfect example.

Building on this science, inventors managed to churn the first motion pictures in the 1890s. The earliest videos produced only emphasised movement. There was little reason for motion picture creators to include sound and/or a story, partly because they still didn’t have the technology. The first-ever “films” were produced by the Lumiere Brothers in France, and they were 5 to 8 minute clips of daily scenarios such as a train arriving at the station, or even someone watering their plants. It might seem mundane today, but people of the past were enthralled at seeing a ‘moving picture’ in action.

By the 20th Century, video had gradually captured audiences all over the world. Various personalities used the Lumiere Brothers’ work as a stepping stone to improving the technology. This includes Edward Muybridge, whose still photographic experiments earned him the title, “The Father of the Motion Picture.” Then came along inventors such as Thomas Edison and George Eastman, whose inventions helped shaped video technology to what it is today.

Why Do Mirrors Show Images Backwards, But Not Upside Down?

Body Mirror in AucklandDid you ever look in a mirror and wonder how it works? Mirrors might be seemingly mundane, but they are scientifically peculiar things. They flip left and right but don’t seem to show things upside down. Try this simple experiment: take a piece of paper, write your name on it, then look at it in the mirror. See how it flips the letters left to right, but the image still remains upright?

Now, look at your reflection in the mirror while holding up your right hand. Notice how your right hand still seems to be on the right side of the mirror from your perspective. But if you’re the reflection and you view things from that perspective, you see that your right hand is now your left hand. Still, the fact remains that as the observer, your right hand is still on the right side of the mirror. There’s no switching.

Trippy Science

It’s time to change things up a bit. Take a piece of translucent paper, write your name on it, and present it to the mirror with your name facing you, so you can read it. Now look at the reflection. Notice how your name looks completely normal now? Turn the paper over (make your name face the mirror again) and see the change. Now, it looks backwards again.

The answer is apparent: the mirror is not to blame here. You are. When you look at something in the mirror, you present it backwards, so the mirror presents it backwards as well. By now, it’s established that the mirror doesn’t flip things horizontally.

Take an arrow and point it up, down, left, and right. The reflection points to the same directions. But if you point the arrow forward, the image points backwards. But the mirror doesn’t flip horizontally, right? No, it doesn’t, but you did flip the arrow vertically, in the Z (vertical) axis. And doesn’t stop there.

Try this experiment. Take someone else and face them. Write a letter L on that person’s left hand, then write a letter R on your right hand, then L on your left, and so on. In the mirror, that person’s R on their right hand would depict R backwards. For that person’s image to completely resemble yours, you’ll have to flip their image horizontally. But then, the mirror doesn’t flip horizontally. This is where the Z axis (vertical flip) comes in. You have to turn something inside out (like a left-handed glove turning into a right handed one if you turn it inside out) for it to fit a right hand. Long story short, images look flipped horizontally and/or vertically because of you, and not the mirror.

4 Smart Moving Hacks You Need To Know

Woman Packing Boxes in SydneyMoving can be a daunting task for many people. The stress that comes with organising, packing, and transporting can tire anyone easily. If you’re changing address soon, read on to know some of the moving hacks you need to know.

1. Learn How to Let Go

Whilst sorting all your possessions, identify the things that you can donate or throw away. You don’t need to bring everything to your new home. Let those drawers of randomness go! By doing this, you don’t only make your move easier, but you also maximise the opportunity to have a less cluttered new home.

2. Create a Week-Long Prep Schedule and other moving companies in Sydney always advise people to plan the move ahead of time. Create a week-long preparation schedule and finish a list of moving prep tasks per day. The tasks may include sorting things, defrosting and cleaning the refrigerator, packing glassware, and more.

3. Never Mix Items from Different Rooms

Make sure that you keep items from one room in boxes separate from the others. This moving hack will help keep your sanity during another stressful process of moving – the unpacking.

4. Pack a First-Day Box

Most people don’t realise the importance of the first-day box until they arrive at their new place. They end up rummaging through a lot of boxes before they can get their mug, toiletries, or anything that they need on their first day in the new home. So, to prevent this, pack a first-day box. Include all your toiletries, a few clothes, some silverware and other essentials. Don’t forget to label this box so you can identify it right away.

Following these tips will not only help make the move easier than you’d expected but will also provide you with a positive, happy vibe — something you’ll surely be needing on the day of your move.

Short Guide to Start Off Your Small-Scale Farm

Small-Scale FarmFor those who have played FarmVille and FarmVille 2, it’s easy to imagine how much time, effort, and attention farming needs. However, unlike digital farming, the actual process of it is a lot more frustrating than what you have experienced on screen.

This is something you need to consider if you decide to be a farmer, even a small-scale one.

So if you are convinced you’re ready for this, trades equipment shop Direct Trades Supply offers a quick and simple guide to start you off.

What You’ll Need

A. Land

First of all, you need a farm to farm on. This process is already hard enough because you have to choose your location well and, of course, you have to have the money to lease or buy a lot. You could try to research if your local government has loan plans; Queensland, for example, does.

B. Seeds and Livestock

A piece of empty land is nothing if you don’t have the produce you are going to take care of and eventually sell. You can buy some from seed distributors. You can also ask if you can solicit help and initial supplies from other local farmers.

C. Equipment

You can’t till the land with your bare hands; you are going to have to buy machines, fencing wires, and tools. Not to mention you have to have some storage building. It’s not unheard of to share with other farmers, but it’s more convenient to have your own, so you better save for this.

D. Buyers

Of course, you have to get back all that money you spent on the seeds, animals, and tools you bought. Good networking and communication skills are needed here. You want loyalty from customers so you have to give quality crops and stocks.

Notes of Caution

It’s better to start your own farm if you already have experience in farming. There are schools and certification programs that can help, but it would be better if you tried working for a real farm for a considerable period of time. A few years on the job can also be a deciding point on whether or not you really want to be a farmer.

Another thing to note of if you are really serious about farming is considering making it a business instead of a just a hobby. Primary producers have more tax concessions when it’s a legitimate business.

So if you loved FarmVille, maybe this is the chance to start a real farm of your own.

Cheap Hair Maintenance Tips

Hair maintenance

Hair maintenanceYou don’t need to spend a lot of money for an effective hair treatment. You can use common household items and get the same effect, or opt for professional treatments that don’t cost as much.

Here are the best tips for great hair maintenance that won’t blow your budget.

Oil Treatments and Mayonnaise Treatment

A trick as old as time, oil is traditionally used in hairstyling and treatment. Oils help in keeping your hair shiny, smooth and strong. Split ends are treatable by thorough hot oil treatment.

You really don’t need to go to the salon for this. All you need is a simple steamer and enough oil to cover your hair. You can choose the type of oil that suits your needs. You can use something as common as olive oil or mayonnaise, or something as specialised as Argan or almond oil.

Keratin Treatment

The latest super star in hair treatment is the keratin treatment. This treatment combines the prowess of hot oil treatment, Brazilian blowout and other similar treatments. The best thing about it is that it only takes about fifteen minutes to apply. The treatment seeps in quite easily into the hair and scalp, making it a fuss-free treatment.

Keratin is a substance naturally found in your hair and nails. It is the substance that keeps it shiny and strong. What the treatment does is restore the hair in its virgin state. Imagine having your hair back to its untouched and healthy state.

Healthy Hair Diet

A special diet of spinach, guava, yogurt and salmon has been tested to be very nourishing for the scalp and the hair. Guava is rich in vitamin C that helps keep breakage at bay. Healthy Greek yogurt helps encourage hair growth. Last but not the least, the healthy fish oils and fatty acids will keep your hair shiny.

Look around your kitchen and see if you have these simple ingredients for your diet and your treatments. The only fussy part on these tips is the schedule. Do it regularly. It won’t take too much of your time but it will surely yield great results.

Intoxication, ALS, and Pleading Guilty to a DWI Charge

DWI Charge

DWI ChargeDWI and DUI laws exist to uphold peace and order. Motor vehicles not driven carefully may cause the loss of properties, and even lives, of people. When driving while intoxicated or while under the influence, the body feels light and numb.

There’s also the problem with one’s core mental faculties. Driving demands complete attention and full use of one’s reflexes. With that in mind, it’s important that a person is free from any influence that will cloud judgment and affect reflexes.


According to David A. Nachtigall, DWI is a common offense in Texas. Depending on the gravity of the violation, as well as the number of times the offender commit it, the penalties may range from warning, probation, or community service. For graver offenses, expect penalty fines, ALS or license suspension, and prison sentence if the offense resulted in injuries.

You receive light penalties for non-moving violations. In moving offenses that result in the injury of civilians, or even mere inconvenience, the penalty can be license suspension. It’s clear that DUI laws are quite strict. When changed with DWI or DUI, no matter how minor, the services of experienced DWI lawyers in Houston prove to be invaluable.

Possible Defenses

The most common defenses are the absence of an accurate substance test, mistaken identity, and the submission of an irregular or an untruthful police report. However, it’s important that these defenses have substantial proof. Any wrongful or untruthful claim may be sanctioned as perjury and may result in another criminal charge.

When a Guilty Plea is the Best Option

It’s best to secure the services and wisdom of experienced DWI lawyers in Houston before you enter any form of plea. A guilty plea is only viable when you’re a first time offender or when the charge is so light that it doesn’t require a day in court.

Remember that even light offenses appear on personal records for a period of time. Think about your plea and study the case before you appear in court.

Important Things You Need to Know About Depleted Uranium


UraniumUnderstanding the nuclear fuel cycle helps authorities manage hazardous materials better. The whole concept is too multifaceted and expansive, though. But, you can focus on one of the elements that play a key role in the cycle – depleted uranium.

This element is a product of the uranium enrichment process, which extracts uranium-235 (U235) from natural uranium, concentrating this element into fuel for nuclear reactors. When the concentration of U235 increases by 3% to 5% through gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge, or laser separation enrichment, it becomes practical for use as a nuclear fuel.

Disposal Process of the Element

Basically, depleted uranium has a concentration of U235 below that of natural uranium (0.7%). When disposing of this element, commercial disposal sites provide the criteria the material has to meet. If converted to chemically stable uranium oxide compounds, depleted uranium can be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste.

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under the U.S. Enrichment Corporation (USEC) Privatization Act, accepts depleted uranium in Utah from Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed uranium enrichment facilities. DOE currently holds over 700,000 metric tons of low-level radioactive waste depleted uranium.

Almost every chemical process presents risks, particularly in a workplace or facility. When taken internally, uranium primarily poisons kidneys. Likewise, if it gets in contact with moisture and turns to hydrogen fluoride, it becomes a corrosive acid that is deadly if inhaled.

Utilization of Depleted Uranium

Another way to make use of depleted uranium is to get the most out of its commercial value. The element, for instance, can turn into counterweights, shielding, military materials, and more. Through a deconversion process, experts can recover fluoride compounds from the depleted uranium.

Every year, manufacturers use about 350,000 tons of dry hydrogen fluoride (HF) to produce plastic, high-octane gasoline, refrigerants, fluorescent light bulbs, pharmaceuticals, electrical components, and herbicides among many others. Reports say that the demand of industries for HF continues to rise.

The U.S. currently has only one operating deconversion facility in Tennessee. As the demand for materials sourced from depleted uranium increases, hopefully, the government builds more facilities.

What to Prepare for an Outdoor Adventure

Outdoor Adventure

Outdoor AdventureGoing for an outdoor adventure is not as easy as walking in the park. There’s a reason being outdoors and exploring the wilderness isn’t for everyone, as it takes some courage, discipline and mental strength to go on a thrilling journey. If this is your first time to explore the great outdoors, it’s important that you know what to prepare for such leisure trips. This article will help you get started.

Be Mentally Prepared

To make travel less stressful, you need to prepare your mind. Doing so allows you to survive obstacles along the way. A number of studies show that those who are not mentally and emotionally ready often stop halfway even when they are physically fit and able.

Get the Right Gear and Apparel notes that your top priority should always be your safety. Therefore, carrying the right gear and wearing the appropriate clothing is a must. This can save your life in case there are dangers ahead. The gear and apparel you will use depends on the type of outdoor activity you are venturing into. For instance, trying whitewater rafting requires you to have lifejacket, helmet, and wetsuit.

Train your Body

When trying strenuous activities, your body should be ready to run, jump and sprint. Before you travel, condition your body and get the proper training, if necessary. This is important if you are trying on a new sport. Pay close attention to your cardio exercises and eat well balanced food for optimum physical performance. Being in your best physical condition is one of the best safety measures.

Observe weather conditions

Harsh weather conditions can cause life-threatening accidents. Before going outside, monitor the weather to see if it’s going to be slippery. See if the weather permits for a safe adventure. Certain weather conditions, such as rain and snow, poses risk. It would be better to reschedule your trip.

Outdoor adventure helps you get in tune with nature. It encourages social interaction, discovery of one’s skills, and improves overall health of the individual.

Protecting Your Home the Stylish Way with Clay Tiles

Clay Tile Roof

Clay Tile RoofRoofing serves not only the house and those living inside it. It also plays an important role in delivering the desired look that you want your home to achieve. As such, selecting the best roof means considering not only functionality and durability, but also aesthetics and appeal.

Clay Tile Roofing Advantages

Clay tiles are known not only for its durability and long service life, but also for its cooling effect, Bower Roofing notes. These types of tiles are positioned in a way that allows air to circulate in between them, making the roof cooler and your energy less costly.

One drawback of clay tile roofing is that it can never easily be stepped on due to its material. That’s why you need to hire roof experts for your roofing restoration or repair needs.

Clay Tile Roofing Styles

Clay tiles are also designed in a way that can provide your house a distinct look and feel. Depending on your taste, here are some clay tile roofing styles to choose from:

• Half-barrel style – Half-barrel shaped tiles are nailed on top of each other. This style of clay tile roofing is perfect if you want to achieve an old, rustic Mediterranean look.

• Japanese style – The tiles are placed in a way that would give the entire roof a concave, upward look. This type of clay tile installation can be seen in many Japanese and other Oriental houses, making it a perfect choice for Asian-inspired homes.

• S-mission style – Also called Spanish style, the tiles are positioned like in the half-barrel style, but are interlocked more closely for a knitted, woven effect.

Some Little Drawbacks

Be aware of some disadvantages in clay tile roofing. One disadvantage is that clay tiles are costlier that some of its counterparts. Clay tiles are more porous, moreover, than other roofing materials, making it more vulnerable to grating due to strong hailstorms and torrential rain.

Still, with proper installation and regular upkeep, clay tiles can give you the style and the service that you always want for a roof.

Diesel Exhaust Fluid: Why the World Needs It

Diesel Exhaust Fluid

Diesel Exhaust FluidDiesel exhaust fluid or DEF is a liquid solution invented to help stop pollution from automotive emissions. At a time when the automotive industry has reached a point where there is an oversupply of cars and other types of vehicles, more and more people are gaining easy access to having their own vehicles.

As a result of the rising number of vehicles used worldwide, the harmful emissions released by automobiles have risen to a relatively uncontrollable level. The long-term effects, which are now beginning to be felt in many parts of the globe, are scary—not to mention, causing disasters that have taken the lives of millions of people worldwide.

Fortunately, DEF is a harmless fluid created to break down the hazardous materials released by automobiles, from NOx to simple nitrogen and water. This way, automobile owners can drive and use their vehicles without contributing to the worsening environmental damage and global warming phenomenon just by buying diesel exhaust fluid for sale, adds

Which Auto Models Use DEF?

Most models of pick-up trucks and SUVs released from 2010 have a separate tank for the DEF, which is sprayed into the exhaust stream to do its wonders.

How Does It Work?

DEF works by using the Selective Catalytic Reduction, or the SCR, a process that breaks down harmful materials called NOx into harmless emissions made of nitrogen and water. To continuously do this, the SCR system should be fed with ammonia gas through the urea solution (which is the DEF).

What are the Pros and Cons of a DEF-ready Truck?

Of course, the ability to use DEF makes your truck fuel efficient, requiring less maintenance, better performance, and environment-friendly, among others. The downside, however, is the added costs and the additional weight and space that it consumes.

There is diesel exhaust fluid for sale online, or you can find an automotive supply store where DEF is sold by gallons. Depending on your type of automobile, and your driving routine, you may need to buy a larger amount of DEF to last a certain period, but its benefits outweigh its initial inconveniences.